The Vacuum Pump Through A Historical Perspective

The famous German politician, scientist and inventor Otto von Guericke invented the vacuum pump in 1650. Prior to this, the suction pump had been in operation for a long period and was seen among the Romans. The evidence of dual-action suction pumps was found in the city of Pompei. Around the 13th century, Al-Jazari, the Arabic engineer wrote about the operation of suction pumps used for discharging the Greek fire. Get the best vacuum pump from Sasquash presses for your requirement.

Water pumps came into existence by the 17th century with sufficient vacuum but it was not understood. On the other hand, this was not substituted to the suction pumps. However, suction pumps did not have the capacity to pull water from a certain point of height i.e. 18 Florentine yards about nine to ten meters height around the year 1635. This was a concern for the purposes of irrigation works, drainage in the mines and for the water decorative fountain project carried out by the Duke of Tuscany. Eventually, the Duke asked Galileo for conducting further investigation to solve the problem.

Galileo shared the problem with other scientists including Gasparo Berti who while conducting experiments invented the water barometer in 1639 in Rome. Gasparo Berti’s barometer could produce above the water column vacuum but the scientist could not explain it. Finally, in 1643, Evangelista Torricelli working on the notes of Galileo invented the first mercury barometer along with the justification and explanation that the top space was the vacuum.

Otto von Guericke invented the first vacuum pump in 1654 and established the authenticity of his invention through his famous scientific experiment of Magdeburg hemispheres experiment and proved that the hemispheres from where the air is completely removed upto a 0% evacuation could never be separated even by the force of a team of horses. A number of scientists like Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke carried out a series of experiments on this theory and reached into varied conclusions. In the year 1855, Heinrich Geissler worked on the mercury displacement pump and generated a record vacuum of 10 Pa which along with other experiments ultimately led to the invention of a vacuum tube.

The vacuum pump beginning from the suction pumps in the Roman era to the modern invention of a vacuum tube went through a series of experiments and hard work of the scientists. Latest is the 19th century Nikola Tesla”s work which is apparently an apparatus design containing a Sprengel pump.

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